Who Were The Greek Titans
To understand who the Greek Titans were, you must understand that this is battel not only of the “old gods’ against the “new gods”. Greek mythology is different in many areas from the classical Indo-European myths of let’s say Viking and germanic and Irish myths and for good reason. Greek mythology borrows heavily from the ancient near east, especially from Semitic sources, from the Levant and Mesopotamia.
To some, it comes as a surprise that Greeks and the Anatolians knew each other well. Even before alexander the great and conquered much of the known world the Greeks were living in Anatolia next to the Hittites and other smaller Anatolian nations. On the west coast of what today is called the nation of Turkey, Greek settlements sprung up along the Anatolian seashore.
So to better understand the Greek Titans mythology one must understand Proto Indo-European myths and Ancient Near East myths. The elder gods called the titans can be linked to the Ancient Near East in such texts as the Enuma Ilish, and the biblical Book of Genisis for starters. By now most are familiar with the story of the Nephilim, who were the offspring of the “Sons of God and the daughter of men.”
While many commentators and authors try to make these sons of god just ordinary men and the daughters of man just ordinary women, in which they are usually portrayed as “sons of the righteous Shem” and “daughters of sinful Seth” because taking it as it is written is just too weird, especially since the Hebrew is “daughters of adam” are probably not aware of the Mesopotamian link to this story. They furthermore either mistranslate Nephilim to be of the root nephal meaning to fall or they interpret giant as meaning giants as in stature, greatness, or prominence.
The Mesopotamian Apkallu
The Mesopotamian Apkallu are here being demonized as “the sons of God” and the children of the Apkallu which appear in Enochian literature as giants were the cultural teachers before the flood teaching man technologies like plowing, herding, and civilization.
The Apkallu who are usually numbered as 7 before the flood was fully divine along with their human sages (ummanu), but after the flood, four Apkallu are mentioned as being of human origin (Meaning the offspring of at least one human parent).
In some texts, they are said to be only 2/3 divine and 1/3 human with of course the most famous of these being Gilgamesh which is also described as being a giant 1Annus- giant post-flood “there is new supporting cuneiform evidence that Gilgamesh was thought of as having a gigantic stature, his height being 11 cubits… and called “The Lord Of The Apkallu”.
In the Babylonian text, Apkallus were often considered as fish-garbed creatures of Ea/Enki, who resided in Apsû, the Ocean of Wisdom. Whereas the flood punished Watchers and Nephilim, a comparable tradition of the deluge from Mesopotamia survives in the version of the Erra Epic, where Marduk sent the Apkallu down into the Apsû or abyss as a consequence of the flood and ordered them not to come up again.
In biblical sources, the Angels who sinned are sent to is a chasm like the Apsû, an abyss with firey pillars and is situated at the “end of the great earth” (a phrase also used in the Mesopotamian texts for the underworld, ki-gal in Sumerian, the phrase is found in the name of the queen of the underworld, Eresh~Kigal ‘the great earth” ) in the new testament greek it is called Tartarus, the place where the titans of Greek myth are sent.
Figurines of Apkallu have been found, they were usually put in boxes in the foundation of Mesopotamian buildings to avert evil, the name for these figurines is called massare Akkadian for ‘watcher’ according to ritual texts, the same as the Aramaic עִיר ʿiyr, plural עִירִין ʿiyrin used in the book of Enoch meaning “Watchers”, “those who are awake”; “guard”, “watcher” for both good and evil watchers.
In Mesopotamian religion, the term Apkallu (Sumerian Abgal) is used for the legendary creatures endowed with extraordinary wisdom. seven in number, they are the heroes before the floodDictionary of Deities and Demons
More on the watchers, the Igigi is another Mesopotamian god mentioned in literary text from Mesopotamia, sometimes synonymous with the term “Anunnaki”. The name has an unknown origin. The signs for the names and one of the options for the etymology of the igigi are i2-gi3-gi3, which are the same signs for 5-1-1 or 5-60-60 5*(60+60)=600 which are by some traditions All the gods.
Another option is to try to interpret the words themselves. Igi means (eye) in the Sumerian language, and is used as a logogram in the Akkadian language, gi stands for (penetrate sexually) Therefore, Igigi could be translated to (Eyes in the sky, the watchers, who deflower)
In later Babylonian and Mesopotamian texts, not only were the Apkallu banished to the underworld, but the Anunnaki are also now the lords of the underworld. In biblical terms, their offspring are usually called by the Hebrew Nephilim from an Aramaic borrowed plural nephilin.
In some passages in the Hebrew bible these giants are called in the Northwest Semitic term Rephaite (cf. the plural word in Hebrew: רְפָאִים, romanized: rəfāʾīm (Rephaim); Phoenician: 𐤓𐤐𐤀𐤌 rpʼm) of which said beings inhabit the underworld. and is most likely from the Ugaritic rpum which denotes the semi-deified deceased ancestors who are mentioned in such sources as the so-called Rephaim Text (KTU 1:20–22), but are sometimes mentioned as a tribe (e.g. Book of Genesis 14:5; 15:18–21; Book of Deuteronomy 2:11–20)
In the Hebrew Bible, “Rephaites” or “Rephaim” can describe an ancient race of giants in Iron Age Israel, or the places where these individuals were thought to have lived. According to Genesis 14:5, King Chedorlaomer and his allies attacked and defeated the Rephaites at Ashteroth-Karnaim. Rephaites are also mentioned at Genesis 15:20; Deuteronomy 2:10–21, 3:11; the Book of Joshua (Joshua 12:4, 13:12, 15:8, 17:15, 18:16); the Books of Samuel (2 Samuel 5:18–22, 23:13); and the Books of Chronicles (1 Chronicles 11:15, 14:9 and 20:4).
In the biblical narrative, the Israelites were instructed to exterminate the previous inhabitants of the “promised land”, i.e. Canaan, which includes various named peoples, including some unusually tall/large individuals. Several passages in the Book of Joshua, and also Deuteronomy 3:11, suggest that Og, the King of Bashan, was one of the last survivors of the Rephaim and that his bed was 9 cubits long in ordinary cubits. (An ordinary cubit is the length of a man’s forearm according to the New American Standard Bible, or approximately 18 in (460 mm), which differs from a royal cubit. This makes the bed over 13 ft 00 in (3.96 m) long, even longer if the cubit was based on a giant’s forearm). Anak, according to 2:11, was a Rephaite.
The area of Moab at Ar (the region east of the Jordan), before the time of Moses, was also considered the land of the Rephaites. Deuteronomy 2:18–21 notes that the Ammonites called the Rephaites “Zamzummim”. In Deuteronomy 2:11, the Moabites referred to them as the “Emim”. The link between Titan and poltergeist may very well be adduced from the verb stem, raphah, which means to sink or relax.
The Greek Titans
According to the Theogony of Hesiod, the Greek Titans were the gods prior to the Olympian gods. they were the twelve children of the primordial parents Uranus (Sky) and his mother, Gaia (Earth), with six male Titans: Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, and Cronus, and six female Titans, called the Titanides Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, and Tethys.
The Greek Titans with Cronus led the rebellion against his father Uranus and became the rulers of the cosmos during the greek golden age myth. The titans themselves were subsequently overthrown by the Olympian gods and Zeus in a ten year war called the Titanomachy. After the war was over Zeus banished Cronus and the greek titans to the underworld of Tartarus, however, some titans who did not fight against the Olympians remained free.
According to Hesiod, Eight of the Greek Titans, brothers, and sisters marrying each other: Oceanus and Tethys, Coeus and Phoebe, Hyperion and Theia, and Cronus and Rhea. The other two Titan brothers married outside their immediate family. Iapetus married his niece Clymene, the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, while Crius married his half-sister Eurybia, the daughter of Gaia and Pontus. The two remaining Titan sisters, Themis and Mnemosyne, became wives of their nephew Zeus.
From Oceanus and Tethys came the three thousand river gods, and three thousand Oceanid nymphs. From Coeus and Phoebe came Leto, another wife of Zeus, and Asteria. From Crius and Eurybia came Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses. From Hyperion and Theia came the celestial personifications Helios (Sun), Selene (Moon), and Eos (Dawn). From Iapetus and Clymene came Atlas, Menoetius, Prometheus, and Epimetheus. From Cronus and Rhea came the Olympians: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. By Zeus, Themis bore the three Horae (Hours), and the three Moirai (Fates), and Mnemosyne bore the nine Muses.
While the descendants of the Greek Titans Oceanus and Tethys, Cronus and Rhea, Themis, and Mnemosyne (i.e. the river gods, the Oceanids, the Olympians, the Horae, the Moirai, and the Muses) are not normally considered to be Titans, descendants of the other Titans, notably: Leto, Helios, Atlas, and Prometheus, are themselves sometimes referred to as the Greek Titans.
The pre-Olympian gods as Hesiod explained as theoi proteroi “the former Gods” were the banished gods, who were no longer part of the upper world, but instead were the gods o the underworld who dwell and inhabited Tartarus. in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, Hera prays to the Titans “who dwell beneath the earth”, calling on them to aid her against Zeus, just as if they were chthonic spirits. In a similar fashion, in the Iliad, Hera, upon swearing an oath by the underworld river Styx, “invoked by name all the gods below Tartarus, that are called Titans” as witnesses.
The Greek Titans were older gods, whose mythology was borrowed from the ancient near east. These imported gods gave context and provided a backstory for the Olympian gods, explaining where these Greek Olympian gods had come from, and how they had come to occupy their position of supremacy in the cosmos. The Greek Titans were the previous generation, and family of gods, whom the Olympians had to overthrow, and banish from the upper world, in order to become the ruling pantheon of Greek gods
As individuals, few of the Greek Titans have any separate identity. Aside from Cronus, the only other figure Homer mentions by name as being a Titan is Iapetus. Some of the greek Titans seem only to serve a genealogical function, providing parents for more important offspring: Coeus and Phoebe as the parents of Leto, the mother, by Zeus, of the Olympians Apollo and Artemis; Hyperion and Theia as the parents of Helios, Selene, and Eos; Iapetus as the father of Atlas and Prometheus; and Crius as the father of three sons Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses, who themselves seem only to exist to provide fathers for more important figures such as the Anemoi (Winds), Nike (Victory), and Hecate.
According to the standard version of the succession myth, given in Hesiod’s Theogony, Uranus initially produced eighteen children with Gaia: the twelve Titans, the three Cyclopes, and the three Hecatoncheires (Hundred-Handers), but hating them, he hid them away somewhere inside Gaia.
Angry and in distress, Gaia fashioned a sickle made of adamant and urged her children to punish their father. Only her son Cronus was willing. So Gaia hid Cronus in “ambush”, gave him an adamantine sickle, and when Uranus came to lie with Gaia, Cronus reached out and castrated his father. This enabled the Greek Titans to be born and Cronus to assume supreme command of the cosmos, with the greek Titans as his subordinates.
It is generally accepted that the Greek Titan succession myth was imported from the Near East, and that along with this imported myth came stories of a group of former ruling gods, who had been defeated and displaced, and who became identified, by the Greeks, like the Greek Titans. Features of Hesiod’s account of the Titans can be seen in the stories of the Hurrians, the Hittites, the Babylonians, and other Near Eastern cultures.
The Hurro-Hittite text Song of Kumarbi (also called Kingship in Heaven), written five hundred years before Hesiod, tells of a succession of kings in heaven: Anu (Sky), Kumarbi, and the storm-god Teshub, with many striking parallels to Hesiod’s account of the Greek succession myth. Like Cronus, Kumarbi castrates the sky-god Anu and takes over his kingship. And like Cronus, Kumarbi swallows gods, one of whom is the storm-god Teshub, who like the storm-god Zeus, is apparently victorious against Kumarbi and others in a war of the gods.
Other Hittite texts contain allusions to “former gods” (karuilies siunes), precisely what Hesiod called the greek Titans, theoi proteroi. Like the Titans, these Hittite karuilies siunes, were twelve (usually) in number and end up confined in the underworld by the storm-god Teshub, imprisoned by gates they cannot open. In Hurrian, the Hittite’s karuilies siunes were known as the “gods of down under” (enna durenna) and the Hittites identified these gods with the Anunnaki, the Babylonian gods of the underworld, whose defeat and imprisonment by the storm-god Marduk.
in the Babylonian poem, Enûma Eliš parallels the defeat and imprisonment of the Titans. Other collectivities of gods, perhaps associated with the Mesopotamian Anunnaki, include the Dead Gods (Dingiruggû), the Banished Gods (ilāni darsūti), and the Defeated (or Bound) Gods (ilāni kamûti).
An Orphic account of the origin of human beings says that as punishment for their crime, Zeus struck the greek Titans with his thunderbolt, and from the remains of the destroyed Titans humankind was born, which resulted in a human inheritance of ancestral guilt, for this original sin of the greek Titans, and by some accounts formed the basis for an Orphic doctrine of the divinity of man.
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- 1Annus- giant post-flood “there is new supporting cuneiform evidence that Gilgamesh was thought of as having a gigantic stature, his height being 11 cubits…