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An ancient country of southern Mesopotamia in present-day southern Iraq. Archaeological evidence dates the beginnings of Sumer to the fifth-millennium bc. By 3000 a flourishing civilization existed, which gradually exerted power over the surrounding area and culminated in the Akkadian dynasty, founded c. 2300 by Sargon I. Sumer declined after 2000 and was later absorbed by Babylonia and Assyria. The Sumerians are believed to have invented the cuneiform system of writing.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
1. (Placename) the S region of Babylonia; seat of a civilization of city-states that reached its height in the 3rd-millennium bc
2. (Historical Terms) the S region of Babylonia; seat of a civilization of city-states that reached its height in the 3rd-millennium bc
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
an ancient region in S Mesopotamia containing a number of independent cities and city-states, fl. c3200–2000 b.c.
Random House Kernerman Webster’s College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
|Noun||1.||Sumer – an area in the southern region of Babylonia in present-day Iraq; site of the Sumerian civilization of city-states that flowered during the third-millennium BCAl-Iraq, Irak, |
Iraq – The Republic of Iraq – a republic in the Middle East in western Asia; the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia was in the area now known as Iraq.
Babylonia, Chaldaea, Chaldea – an ancient kingdom in southern Mesopotamia; Babylonia conquered Israel in the 6th century BC and exiled the Jews to Babylon (where Daniel became a counselor to the king).
Ur – an ancient city of Sumer located on a former channel of the Euphrates River.
Enki – water god and god of wisdom; counterpart of the Akkadian Ea.
Enlil, En-lil – god of the air and king of the Sumerian gods.
Inanna – consort of Dumuzi (Tammuz).
Ki – goddess personifying earth; counterpart of Akkadian Arur.
Nammu – goddess personifying the primeval sea; mother of the gods and of heaven and earth.
Namtar, Namtaru – a demon personifying death; the messenger of the underworld goddess Ereshkigal bringing death to mankind
Nanna – god of the Moon; counterpart of the Akkadian Sin.
Ninib, Ninurta – a solar deity; firstborn of Bel and consort was Gula; god of war and the chase and agriculture; sometimes identified with biblical Nimrod.
Utu, Utug – sun god; counterpart of Akkadian Shamash.
Zu, Zubird – evil storm god represented as a blackbird.
Enkidu – a legendary friend of Gilgamish
Gilgamish – legendary Sumerian king and hero of Sumerian and Babylonian epics
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