Ancient Near East Sumer

Explorations over a wider area disclosed hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of clay tablets with detailed accounts of the life of the Sumerians, from their business transactions, political system, battles, and even the story of man’s creation.

Drawing inspiration from the ancient Sumerian word Abzu, the name was given to what the Sumerians believed the ocean truly was — a body capable of providing not just life, but wisdom, to the world, a belief that was the core of their ‘cosmic ocean’ philosophy, that the ocean is the primary source of all life on this planet.

The Sumerians, the cultural predecessors of the Babylonians in southern Mesopotamia, are usually credited with the development of a calendar based on lunar months. After its fall, the language isolates speaking Gutians, a pre-Iranic race from Ancient Iran, over-ran the region for a few decades, making Arrapha their capital, before being ejected from Mesopotamia by Sumerians during the Neo-Sumerian Empire (2112-2004 BC). For the Sumerians, this direction could be described by the word kur (earth/mountains) that designated both a foreign land and the netherworld.

Another difference pointed out by Berlin is the fact that the Sumerians did not have to deal with an exile. Dr. Qusay Al Turkey, who is an expert in ancient Eastern civilization and Iraq’s languages, said Sumerians considered Bahrain the land of immortality. Indeed, the Sumerians, who lived in what is now Iraq, used those innovations to lift human society to the level of civilization for the first time, according to one school of thought.

RECENT archaeological evidence suggests that Tamil spoken in the Indian sub-continent could have been the language used by the Indus civilization and even the Sumerians. After an introductory chapter by the editor, chapters are devoted to the extant literature of the Sumerians, Egyptians, Akkadians, Hittites, Canaanites, Israelites, and Arameans. However, besides the two basic ingredients, barley and emmer (a species of wheat) the brew produced in the clay jars of the Sumerians is shrouded in mystery.

Edited By Eddy Bob Jones


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