The Origin Of God Discover 1 Explanation

The Origin Of God Discover 1 Explanation

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The Origin Of God Discover 1 Explanation

The Origin Of God

The Origins Of God is probably one of the hardest articles I have ever written. It involves several languages and language groups as well as a timeline spanning over ten millennia.

I will endeavor to piece together the origins of near eastern and western concepts of god from Semitic sources and language groups, Indo-European language groups, as well as Sumerian texts as well.

I will piece the puzzle together with historical facts, linguistics, and religious documents.

Timeline

8,000 B.C to 10,000 BC

Göbekli Tepe

8,000 B.C to 10,000 BC

6500 BC

Ubaid Period

First Inhabitants in southern Mesopotamia

6500 BC

ca. 4000 to 3100 BC

 Uruk Period

also known as Protoliterate period.

ca. 4000 to 3100 BC

3100–2900 BC

Jemdet Nasr Period

It is named after the type site Tell Jemdet Nasr, where the assemblage typical for this period was first recognized. Its geographical distribution is limited to south-central Iraq.

3100–2900 BC

3,200 BC

Sumerian cuneiform writing system and Egyptian hieroglyphs

3,200 BC

3,000 BC

Egyptian Calendar

First known use of papyrus by Egyptians

3,000 BC

2,800 BC

Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins

2,800 BC

2,700 BC

Minoan Civilization

Rise of Elam in Iran

The Epic of Gilgamesh becomes the first written story

The Old Kingdom begins in Egypt

2,700 BC

2,600 BC

Oldest known surviving literature: Sumerian texts from Abu Salabikh, including the Instructions of Shuruppak and the Kesh temple hymn.

Mature Harappan Phase of the Indus Valley civilization (in present-day Pakistan and India) begins

2,600 BC

2,560 BC

King Khufu completes the Great Pyramid of Giza. The Land of Punt in the Horn of Africa first appears in Egyptian records around this time

2,560 BC

2334 or 2270 BC

Akkadian Empire is founded, dating depends upon whether the Middle chronology or the Short chronology is used.

2334 or 2270 BC

2,200 – 2,100 BC

4.2 kiloyear event:

a severe aridification phase, likely connected to a Bond event, which was registered throughout most North Africa, Middle East, and continental North America. Related droughts very likely caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt and of the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia.

2,200 – 2,100 BC

2,055 BC

The Middle Kingdom begins in Egypt

2,055 BC

1800 BC

Alphabetic Writing Emerges 1Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, and Proto-Canaanite (when found in Canaan), is a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, considered the earliest trace of alphabetic writing, and the common ancestor of the Ancient South Arabian script and Phoenician alphabet (and by extension, every other subsequent alphabet).

2The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East, it marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. The Ancient Near Eastern cultures are well within the historical era: The first half of the millennium is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. At the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Minoan Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium sees the Bronze Age collapse and the transition to the Iron Age.

1800 BC

1780 BC

Oldest Record of Hammurabi’s Code.

1780 BC

1600 BC

Minoan civilization on Crete is destroyed by the Minoan eruption of Santorini island.

Mycenaean Greece

Beginning of Hittite dominance of the Eastern Mediterranean region

1600 BC

c.1550 BC

The New Kingdom begins in Egypt

c.1550 BC

c. 1180 BC

Disintegration of Hittite Empire

c. 1180 BC

c.1000 BC

King David begins his reign as the second King of Israel, after Saul

c.1000 BC

814 BC

Foundation of Carthage by the Phoenicians in today known Tunisia

814 BC

800 BC

Rise of Greek city-states

800 BC

c.785 BC

Rise of the Kingdom of Kush

c.785 BC

The Rise Of Religion

The Origin Of God
Credit Teomancimit https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:G%C3%B6bekli_Tepe,_Urfa.jpg

Göbekli Tepe is believed to have been built some 11,500 or so years ago. I find it remarkable that this date also marks a time cataclysmic climate change and the rise of modern man? During this period it saw mankind go from hunter-gatherers to farming and agriculture.

This time is also called the pre-pottery neolithic period. There is not much yet is known about the inhabitants or builders of this site. There are carvings and reliefs of humans and animals on the T shaped pillars. This for me has a resemblance to early Mesopotamian and Egyptian iconography.

The placement of the T stones may be in alignment with certain constellations. Constellations were very important in Mesopotamia and Egypt. The Cygnus Constellation seems to be very important to them as well, and the star Deneb.

The Gobekli Tepe Enigma

For a great article on the alignments of Gobekli Tepe read here. One of the most puzzling questions arises from the appearance that it seems to have been buried on purpose. It is being hypothesized that because no obvious dwellings exist, (at least no areas yet uncovered) It may have been a temple. But I ask, where did these people come from and where did they go?

It is possible that the catalyst was not agriculture that helped civilization begin, but religion. A shared religion that spanned several language groups. A religion that centered around astronomy, husbandry, and agriculture?. Is it possible the priest of this ancient site during this transition of hunter-gathers to agriculturalists and herdsmen? Could they have spread their beliefs among the scattered clans and tribe spanning the Anatolia steppes? All the way up to the Eurasian steppes between the Black and Caspian seas?

In The Garden Of God

The Garden of God or the Garden of Eden is not unique to the Bible. It is also sometimes mentioned as the Mountain of God and the Assembly or Council of God. So first let’s start with definitions.

Garden of Eden (Hebrew: גַּן־עֵדֶן – gan-ʿḖḏen) 3Metzger, Bruce Manning; Coogan, Michael D (2004). The Oxford Guide To People And Places Of The Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 62. ISBN978-0-19-517610-0. Retrieved 22 December 2012. is derived from the Akkadian word edinnu. Edinnu is from the Sumerian word edin meaning “plain” or “steppe“. It is also related to an Aramaic root word meaning “fruitful, well-watered“.4 Cohen 2011, pp. 228–229.

So we can see here the word Eden means a steppe or plain. A steppe is defined as “an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes”.

This garden had to be located not in a valley or delta, but on a steppe. Furthermore, it could not be a high plain as there would be little or no rainfall or able to support plant life because of the freezing conditions.

It must be a moderate steppe or plain. There are several plains in the middle east but it has one more qualifier we must search for. IT must have one river that breaks off into four rivers.

People have searched for this garden for years with no luck. It could be one or more of these rivers have dried up or have changed courses. The past 8,000 to 10,000 years could have changed the landscape due to the Younger Dryas 5Rasmussen, S. O.; Andersen, K. K.; Svensson, A. M.; Steffensen, J. P.; Vinther, B. M.; Clausen, H. B.; Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L.; Johnsen, S. J.; Larsen, L. B.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Bigler, M. (2006). “A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination” (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research111 (D6): D06102. Bibcode:2006JGRD..111.6102Rdoi:10.1029/2005JD006079. ISSN 0148-0227 and subsequent new ice age it caused.

Could This Be The location Of Eden?

But there is one Steep within Mesopotamia that may match. It has two of the rivers mentioned as well as possible the two other rivers

Göbekli Tepe located near the headwaters of the Euphrates and tigers river in the fertile crescent on the Anatolian Steppe
The Four Rivers Coming From The Garden In Eden

The Rise Of Sumer

Around 4000 years after the builders of Göbekli Tepe another civilization arose in Mesopotamia. The land of Sumer 6The name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumeriankig̃ir, written ??? ki-en-gi and ??? ki-en-ĝir15, approximately “land of the civilized kings” or “native land”. ĝir15 means “native, local”, in(ĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian) from The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary). Literally, “land of the native (local, noble) lords”. Stiebing (1994) has “Land of the Lords of Brightness” (William Stiebing, Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture). Postgate (1994) takes en as substituting eme “language”, translating “land of the Sumerian heart” (John Nicholas Postgate (1994). Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge (UK).. Postgate believes it not that eme, ‘tongue’, became en, ‘lord’, through consonantal assimilation.) was first settled by humans from 4500 to 4000 B.C.Cuneiform ancient.eu though it is probable that some settlers arrived much earlier.

The Sumerian was of a nonsemitic language group but most likely I believe like the people from the Anatolian steppes and peoples between the Caspian and the Black Sea where both the Semitic language group and Indo-European language groups originated and spread out from, and most likely where the stories of the Sumerian deities originated.

Sumer’s First Writing

The first written language in Sumer was not cuneiform, but a photographic or iconography writing system. Similarly, the Semitic writing systems that would evolve we’re also pictographs later developing into logographic systems like hieroglyphs and cuneiform or alphabet systems.

Sumerian Evolution of Writing

Much Like The Proto Hebrew Pictographs

Proto Hebrew Pictograph Alphabet

If you look at the two you will see a few similarities even though they are from two different language group origins. If you want to add Egyptian and even Chinese to the mix you will see where I’m going to.

Linguists say they believe there was a proto Semitic language. Linguists also believe in a proto Indo-European language that they can not find. I would like to propose a theory. Possibly Sumerian was the beginning of these language groups or at least the closest to the original language group. With the land of Sumer being right in the middle of the language groups.

The Sumerian Religion

The Sumerian religion 7Kramer, Samuel Noah (1963). The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. The Univ. of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-45238-7.was a polytheistic religion consisting of a pantheon of gods and goddesses. Usually, each city-state also chose a chief god, or goddess as their patron city god. The bible closely mirrors the epochs and stories of Sumer. They both have a creation story, a flood story, and other similarities.

Many have proposed that the Hebrews incorporated Sumerian myths into their own religion but I suggest another route. I believe the reason why all Mesopotamia seems to have similar religions is they received it from the same place.

The Cradle of Civilisation
Notice how they surround the Pains of Herran where the Ancient city of Herran was located, The family dwelling place of Abraham.

In The Beginning

Sumerian Flood myth you can read here

The Sumerian Creation Story 8Thorkild Jacobsen (1994). Hess, Richard S.; Tsumuro, David Toshio (eds.). I Studied Inscriptions from Before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis. Eisenbraun’s. p. 129. ISBN 978-0931464881. Retrieved 30 July 2015 is not as well known as the ones that follow it. Other Sumerian creation myths include; The Barton Cylinder, The Debate Between Sheep and grain, and The Debate Between Winter and Summer. Also found at Nippur9 Ewa Wasilewska (2000). Creation stories of the Middle East. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-1-85302-681-2. Retrieved 23 May 2011.

The text was badly fractured and much of the text is missing. But we can gain some information from it. But the first part of the story is missing. So we Can read that the gods’ An, Enlil, Enki, and Ninhursanga created the Sumerians and animals. The Kingship then descends from heaven. The Cities of Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larak, Sippar, and Shuruppak are founded. Later the text says Zi-ud-sura, the king and gudug priest, learns of this, and not much more can be found.

The Atra-Hasis Epic

But in the Akkadian text, we find the missing information. And in the Atra-Hasis Epic (The Akkadian flood story). The Gods Ea (Sumerian Enki), the god of the waters, warns Atrahasis about the coming flood. And Ea gives him instructions for building an ark. This is missing in the Sumerian fragment. The mention of Enki taking counsel with himself suggests similar instructions in the Sumerian version.

Enuma Elish

The Enuma Elish is an old Babylonian akkadian script

The Enuma Elish is an old Babylonian Akkadian script10Akkadian Cuneiform: ?????, also spelled “Enuma Elish”, named so because of its opening line. The tablet describes the creation of the world. A battle between gods focused on the supremacy of Marduk. As a result, the creation of man and his service of the Mesopotamian deities. It ends with a long passage praising Marduk.

The Seven Tablets Of Creation

Enuma Elish Summery

Tablet 1. It begins before creation with only the primordial Apsu and Tiamat exist and co-mingled together. As a result of the mixture of Apsu and Tiamat, the gods Lahmu and Lahamu were created. And then They created Anshar and Kishar. And then from the god Anshar cam Anu, and from Anu, came Nudimmud also called Ea and in Sumerian is called Enki).

Noisy Gods

The new gods became noisy and Tiamat couldn’t get any rest and Apsu couldn’t calm her down. Worried Apsu confided in his advisor Mummu who told Apsu that Tiamat must destroy the new young gods. Tiamat couldn’t bring herself to destroy her creation so Mummu told Apsu that he then would have to destroy them. But the young gods about the plan to kill them and Ea made a spell that put Apsu to sleep.

But Mummu tried and failed to wake Apsu. So then Ea killed Apsu in his sleep and took his halo and put it on his own head. And so the slain Apsu became Ea’s dwelling place along with his wife Damkina. And in deep in Apsu, Damkina created Marduk

Tiamat Goes To War

When Tiamat learn what had been done to Apsu she was furious. And then the young gods began to mock her. They said, “When your consort was slain you did nothing’, and complained of the wearisome wind”. Tiamat then made monsters to battle the other gods, eleven chimeric creatures with weapons. She Made the god Kingu general of her army and Kingu became Tiamat’s new consort. To him, she gave the Tablet of Destiny making his words supreme and final.

Tablet 2. Ea and the other gods found out about Tiamat’s plan to revenge Apsu’s death. So Ea went to Anshar and told him that Tiamat had created monsters to destroy them. And that many of the elder gods had joined Tiamat’s side. But Anshar told Anu to go makeup with Tiamat. But he was too afraid to face her and he fled and hid.

The Rise OF Marduk

Finally, Anshar proposed Marduk as their champion. He asked what god he must fight after he was brought forward. Anshar replied that it was not a god but the goddess Tiamat. Marduk agreed but made them swear to proclaim him as the supreme God, with authority over even Anshar.

Tablet 3. And so Anshar spoke to Gaga, who told him to go to Lahmu and Lahamu and tell them of Tiamat’s plans. And of Marduk’s demand for overlordship if he defeats her. Lahmu and Lahamu and other Igigi were not happy with this so they drank together. Becoming drowsy, and finally approving the deal with Marduk.

Marduk’s Weapons

Tablet 4. Marduk was given a throne, scepter, and vestments, as well as weapons to fight Tiamat. And Marduk was given a bow, quiver, mace, and bolts of lightning. He has also equipped with the four winds and his body was aflame.
And by using the four winds Marduk trapped Tiamat. Adding a whirlwind, a cyclone, and Imhullu (“the Evil Wind”), together the seven winds stirred up Tiamat. In his war chariot drawn by four creatures he advanced. He challenged Tiamat, stating she had unrightfully made Kingu her consort, accusing her of being the source of the trouble. Enraged, Tiamat joined Marduk in single combat.

Marduk Prevails

Marduk used a net, a gift from Anu, to entangle Tiamat; Tiamat attempted to swallow Marduk, but ‘the Evil Wind’ filled her mouth. With the winds swirling within her she became distended. Marduk then fired his arrow, hitting her heart and she was slain.

The other gods attempted to flee but, Marduk captured them, broke their weapons, and netted them. Tiamat’s eleven monsters were also captured and chained; whilst Kingu was taken to Uggae (the Angel of Death), the ‘Tablet of Destinies’ taken from him. Marduk then smashed Tiamat’s head with the mace, whilst her blood is carried off by the North Wind.

Marduk then split Tiamat’s remains in two. And from one half he made the sky and in it, he made places for Anu, Enlil, and Ea.

The Constellations Are Made

Marduk made likenesses of the gods in the constellations and defined the days of the year from them. Marduk created night and day, and the moon also. He created clouds and rain, and their water made the Tigris and Euphrates. Then gave the ‘Tablet of Destinies’ to Anu.

Marduk then makes statues of the eleven monsters of Tiamat that were made and installed at the gate of Apsu.

Tablet 5: Marduk made likenesses of the gods in the constellations and defined the days of the year from them. Marduk created night and day, and the moon also. He created clouds and rain, and their water made the Tigris and Euphrates. He gave the ‘Tablet of Destinies’ to Anu.

The Creation Of Man

Tablet 6. Marduk then spoke to Ea and said he would use his blood to create man. He also instructed that man would serve the gods. Then Ea advised that one of the gods to be chosen as a sacrifice. The Igigi advised that Kingu be chosen because it was he who had led the forces of Tiamat. So they used Kingu’s blood to be used to create man. Marduk then divided the gods into “above” and “below”. Three hundred in the heavens, six hundred on earth.

The gods wanted to build a throne or shrine for him so Marduk told them to construct Babylon. The gods then spent a year making bricks and they built the Esagila (Temple to Marduk). They built it to a great height, making it a place for Marduk, Ea, and Enlil. Then the Gods then made a banquet, with fifty of the great gods taking seats. Anu praising Enlil’s bow and then Marduk. It was at this time that the first nine names or titles of Marduk were given.

Marduk’s Fifty Names Are Given

Tablet 7 Marduk’s remaining fifty names or titles were read

But you ask what does any of this have to do with the origins of the Hebrew scriptures and texts? The name Apsu which was first a god, then slain to be the inhabitation of ENKI or Ea. 11The Abzu or Apsu (Cuneiform: ? ?, ZU.AB; Sumerian: abzu; Akkadian: apsû, also called engur (Cuneiform:?, LAGAB×HAL; Sumerian: engur; Akkadian: engurru—lit. ab=’water’ zu=’deep’).12 in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology is referred to the primeval sea below the void space of the underworld (Kur) and the earth (Ma) above. In the city of Eridu, Enki’s temple was known as E2-abzu (house of the deep waters). It was located at the edge of a swamp an abzu. Certain tanks of holy water in Babylonian and Assyrian. Temple courtyards were also called abzu (apsû). Typical in religious washing, these tanks were similar to Judaism’s mikvot, the washing pools of Islamic mosques. Also, like the baptismal font in Christian churches.

Geneses

Look at Genesis 1:2 “The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.”. This also is a depiction of before creation. We read that God hovered above the face of the waters, or the deep. The Apsu or deep waters is also called the abyss.

So God didn’t make the earth or man from a serpent named Tiamat. And this is true that it does not actually say this. And the bible does not say anything about the materials God used to create the heavens and the earth. But there is a very obscure reference in the bible in a few places that mention a serpent.

But not much information is given in these passages about Yahweh’s battle with the serpent Leviatan. Which means one of two things. So it may be the writer believed the reader already knew about these ancient tells. Or something was omitted from the text by one of the redactors of the scriptures.

Yahweh’s Battle With Leviathan

Leviathan

With an open mind examine these verses from the bible and ask yourself this question. “Could this also be a reference to the other Semitic stories we find in Sumer, Akkad, and others?

Job writes this in 26:13 By his wind, the heavens were made fair; his hand pierced the fleeing serpent. (KJV using the Masoretic text translates it as “By his spirit, he hath garnished the heavens; His hand hath formed the crooked serpent”, but dead sea scrolls and the Septuagint (a thousand years older than any of the Masoretic texts), as well as the ESV and others, translate it correctly the way I have written it)

Dragons In The Waters

Psalms 74:13 Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength: thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters.

In Ugarit text, Baal has a serpent enemy too, A serpent named Lutan, Lawtan, or Leviathan. In the Canaanite language elat or lat means goddess, this crosses over into the endo europian language when we find Hercules fighting the serpent Ladon who is guarding the sacred tree of the goddess, which also will take us back to Sumer in the tablet called Inanna and the Huluppu Tree where we first encounter Lilith, a storm demon, like the masculine Canaanite storm god Baal.

Innana And The Huluppu Tree

Here are a few lines from Innana and the Huluppu Tree:

…At that time, it was planted, a tree, a single tree, by the banks of the Great River, Enki, the Father, did plant the Huluppu-tree, The God of Wisdom, he planted it by the banks of the Euphrates, Before he set sail, before the Father departed for the underworld….

…A young woman (Innana) who walked in fear of no man, and would not be owned, Plucked the tree from the river and spoke: “I shall bring this tree to Uruk. I shall plant this tree in my holy garden.”…

A Serpent in The Tree

Then a serpent who could not be charmed Made its nest in the roots of the Huluppu-tree. The Anzu-bird 13Anzû, also known as dZû and Imdugud (Sumerian: ??? AN.IM.DUGUDMUŠEN), is a lesser divinity or monster in several Mesopotamian religions. He was conceived by the pure waters of the Apsu and the wide Earth, or as son of Siris. Anzû was depicted as a massive bird who can breathe fire and water, although Anzû is alternately depicted as a lion-headed eagle. set his young in the branches of the tree. And the dark maid Lilith 14Archibald Sayce (1882) considered that Hebrew lilit (or lilith) לילית and the earlier Akkadian līlītu are from proto-Semitic. Charles Fossey (1902) has this literally translating to “female night being/demon”, although cuneiform inscriptions from Mesopotamia exist where Līlīt and Līlītu refer to disease-bearing wind spirits built her home in the trunk….

The hero Gilgamesh killed the serpent and the bird flew away to the mountains, and Lilith departed to uninhabited regions. But in this ancient text, we see some failure icons, a tree, a holy garden, a serpent, and Lilith.

Lilith Or Lili

Lilith in Sumerian form is Lili. But in Akkad, the name Lili was adapted as lilitu and somewhat evolved to the Hebrew לִילִית Lîlîṯ. Wherein the King James version she is mistranslated as a “Screech-owl”, but she is found all over in ancient Mesopotamian religions, from the cuneiform texts of Sumer, Akkadian, Assyria, and Babylonia.

In some Jewish cabalistic stories, Lilith left Adam after she refused to become subservient to him and then would not return to the Garden of Eden after she had coupled with the archangel Samael. Some text goes further to identify Lilith and Samael as the male and female leviathans.

The Zohar Says It This Way.

Zohar I 148a-148b
The male is called ‘Samael’, and his female is always included with him. Just as on the side of holiness there are male and female, so on ‘the other side’ there are male and female, including one with the other. The female of Samael is called ‘snake,’ ‘a wife of harlotry,’ ‘the end of all flesh,’ ‘the end of days.’ Two evil spirits are attached to one another. The male spirit is fine, the female spirit spreads out down several ways and paths, and is attached to the male spirit.

So Lilith is connected to the serpent Leviathan aka Dragon, Satan, Wich draws together, the goddess Tiamat, The goddess Lutan or Lawtan as well as Hercules’s serpent Laden. But the Indo-European myth of Zeus and Typhon gives us the closet match.

Zeus And Typhon

According to Hesiod, Typhon was the son of Gaia and Tartarus. However, one source has Typhon as the son of Hera alone, while another makes Typhon the offspring of Cronus. But most made Typhon the child of Tartarus, aka Apsu, Abyss. The Typhon mythology is part of the Greek succession myth. Whereas it explained how Zeus came to rule the gods. Typhon’s and Zeus’s story is also connected with that of Python and Appolo. And both stories probably derived from several Near Eastern antecedents.

According to Hesiod’s Theogony 15c. 8th – 7th century BC, Typhon was the son of Gaia and Tartarus: “when Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven, huge Earth bore her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of Tartarus, by the aid of golden Aphrodite”. 16Hesiod,Theogony 820–822. Apollodorus, 1.6.3, and Hyginus, Fabulae Preface also have Typhon as the offspring of Gaia and Tartarus. However Hyginus, Fabulae 152 has Typhon as the offspring of Tartarus and Tartara, where, according to Fontenrose, p. 77, Tartara was “no doubt [Gaia] herself under a name which designates all that lies beneath the earth.”

A Familiar story

Apollodorus 171st or 2nd century AD adds that Gaia bore Typhon in anger at the gods for their destruction of her offspring the Giants. The stories have some differences but a lot of similarities. A battle between old gods and new gods, a goddess creating monsters in revenge for the deaths of other gods.

Besides Marduk and Tiamat, there is also the tablet where the god Ninurta battels Asag and Anzu. Lugal-e, 18a late-third-millennium BC Sumerian poem,

Ninurta vs. Asag

The god Ninurta bottles Asag. Like Typhon, Asag is the offspring of Earth (Ki), who challenged the rule of Ninurta. Who like Zeus, was a storm-god employing winds and floods as weapons.

As in Hesiod’s account of the Typhonomachy, during their battle, both Asag and Ninurta set fire to the landscape. And like in the Typhon story, Asag won the initial victory, but Ninurta finally overcame him.

Ninurta vs. Anzu

Akkadian epic Anzu 19The early second millennium BC tells the story of Ninurta battling the winged monster Anzu, another offspring of Earth. Anzu roared like a lion and was the source of destructive storm winds. Ninurta destroys Anzu on a mountainside. Anzu laid on the ground, Ninurta lashing nim with a rainstorm and floodwaters. In the same way, Homer has Zeus lash the land about Typhon with his thunderbolts.

Baal Sapon vs. Yamm

From the south side of the Jebel Aqra, comes the Ugsritic tale of Baal Sapon, and Yamm20 Ugaritic tablets, dated to the fourteenth or thirteenth-century BC, (the god if the sea, and the sea itself like Tiamat), the Canaanite storm-god Baal Sapon’s battles Yamm on Mount Sapuna 21the Canaanite name for later Greeks’ Mount Kasios.

Baal defeats Yamm with two throwing clubs (thunderbolts?) named ‘Expeller’ and ‘Chaser’, which fly like eagles from the storm god’s hands. Other tablets associate the defeat of the snaky Yamm with the slaying of a seven-headed serpent ‘’Ltn’’ (Litan/Lotan), apparently corresponding to the biblical Leviathan.

Tarhunna vs Illuyanka

From the north side of the Jebel Aqra, come Hittite myths, 22c. 1250 BC, which tell two versions of the storm-god Tarhunna’s (Tarhunta’s) battle against the serpent Illuyanka.

In another Hittite text derived from the Hurrians, the Hurrian storm-god Teshub (with whom the Hittite’s Tarhunna came to be identified) lived on Mount Hazzi, the Hurrian name for Mount Jebel Aqra and his battle with the sea-serpent Hedammu.

In this story, the goddess Sauska (equivalent to Inaru) aids Tarhunna, the storm-god. Who this time seduces the monster with music (as in Nonnus), drink, and sex. Which upon successfully luring the serpent from his lair in the sea. A different Hittite text derived from the Hurrians, The Song of Ullikummi, a kind of sequel to the Hittite “kingship in heaven” succession myths of which the story of Teshub and Hedammu formed a part, tells of a second monster, this time made of stone named Ullikummi that Teshub must defeat in order to secure his rule.

Evidence Of A Porto Source?

I admit there is not one source of concrete evidence, but a lot of circumstantial evidence that one proto source existed. And all evidence appears to supports the idea that both proto Indo-European and proto Semitic languages evolved from the area between the Black and Caspian seas nearly 10,000 years ago. And both Mesopotamian and Hebrew appear to be associated with a holy mountain and garden motifs

Watching The Sky

Lastly, all the ancient near eastern cultures and religions had and knew of astronomical events and knowledge of astrology/astronomy as in those days the two were the same. Many of the gods and the stories of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the greeks, and so on were astrotheology based stories.

While modern-day scholars are unsure how Mesopotamians in what seems overnight acquired knowledge of astronomy, agriculture, and writing, why not take the Sumerians words for it? but the Sumerians say the Gods taught all these things, as according to their own words. But I suggest the origins of their knowledge also lies in Göbekli Tepe.

Decoding Gobekli Tepe

Like I mentioned before about the odd carvings of animals on the rocks in Göbekli Tepe, and while most scholars are unsure of their meanings, here’s my take on some of the most known carvings.

The So Called Vulture

There is a headless person in the bottom of the photo So, where is his head? Above the vultures left wing is a circle, this is the head of the headless body. While some have called the culture of this site “skull cult, or skull worship” it is not, the headless figure represents the dead, while the head itself above the wing represents the soul of the person. Much like the Egyptian weighing of the soul against the feather. Below the vulture is a scorpion, which in itself represents death, “Death where is your sting”, but here is where I will make a turn from all that is currently accepted.

The Vulture Stone

This is the story of the migration of the soul after death. This is the beginning of religion, the afterlife, and the soul. The circle representing both the soul of the body, the head, and the Sun at the center of the galactic plane and the ecliptic on the spring equinox 11,000 BC! nearly 4 times older than the early Sumerian period c. 3000 BC.

As I have stated, I believe this to be about the transmigration of the soul but this is also making the death of civilization during the catastrophe of the Younger Dryas. This is the best video interpretation I have seen that backs the theory

The Vulture Stone of Gobekli Tepe: Pillar 43 Decoded | Ancient Architects
Watch this video on YouTube.
OUR ANCIENT ORIGINS DOES NOT OWN OR HAVE ANY COPYRIGHTS TO THIS OR ANY VIDEO AND USES IT FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY.

Babel and Babylon

During the Ubaid period. 6500–3800 BC of southern Mesopotamia is where we start to see evidence of the earliest signs of civilization and all evidence shows Ubaid expansion went out of southern Mesopotamia as the biblical text says.

1 Now the whole earth had one language and the same words. 2 And as people migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. 3 And they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly.” And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. 4 Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth.”

Genesis 11: 1-4

But we will need to connect the biblical to the right babel and right time of expansion. When someone says Babylon we think, “yeah I know where that is” and we think of the city of Babylon. However Babylon, the modern-day city is located in central Mesopotamia. Dated from 600 BC, this would make it post-migration from southern Mesopotamia. So it can not be the biblical Babylon or city of babel.

The Babel Of Genesis

Shinar 23(/ˈʃɪnɑːr/; Hebrew שִׁנְעָר Šinʻar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is the biblical term for Sumer. So was any other city ever called Babylon?

There were two mass dispersions from southern Mesopotamia in the prehistoric period, both from the south not central as I said before. The Uruk and Jemdet Nasr24 c. 3500 and c. 3000 BC. saw a lot of innovations in Mesopotamia including leading up to written language and what has been described as the urban expansion25Roaf, Mesopotamia and the ANE (Ancient Near East), 58 so the time period for Babel needs to be in the Uruk period.

The city we know as Babylon today has not produced any pottery or artifacts from this time period, so we can exclude it. There is evidence that other cities were given the designation of “Babel” or “Babylon” throughout antiquity.

Excluding Cities

So let’s look at some ancient near east cities that ancient sources also were called Babel or Babylon. Arbela, Assur, Borsippa, Eridu, Kish, Kullab, Kuara, Kalhu/Calah-biblical, and Ninevah. Ninevah, Kalhu/Calah, Arbela, and Assur can be ruled out because they are all located in northern Sumer and or ancient Assyria and far from the Uruk expansion period.

Borsippa is southwest of Babylon and was called “Babylon the second” but was never a seat of power in any way so we can rule it out as well. Kullab is both part of the city of Babylon and part of the city of Uruk as well.

Uruk Possibly?

Obviously Uruk would be a logical contender for the biblical Babel, It is in the heart of southern Babylonia, but it can not be because the bible in Genesis 10:10 called it Erech and distinguishes it from Babel.

Kuara, later called Kumar is in southern Sumer but was established in the early dynastic II period 2450 BC so is also ruled out.

Kish shows signs of inhabitance since the Ubaid period which is before the dispersion period it was never called Babylon though but made the list because of its entry in the Sumerian Kings List where it says Kish was the first recipient of kingship. However, Kish is also in central Mesopotamia.

Using The Sumerian Kings List To Find Babel

But there is another version of the Sumerian Kings list that says Eridu was the first city the kingship from heaven came to and is also our last city on the list. And Eridu was a name given to Babylon proper, In fact, the names are interchangeable.

Babylon of later times was often also called Eridu. According to the Sumerian Kings list, Eridu was in existence before the time of the “flood swept in” and believed to have been first built around 6000 BC and was known to be the source of the antediluvian section of the kings list because of the Sumerian creation story. In the Creation epic, the hero-god Enki saves mankind and Enki is the chief god of Eridu.

The Eridu Genesis

But in The Eridu Genesis, as it is called, Eridu and Babylon are referred to as the same primeval city. And according to the Sumerian Kings list, the first king of Eridu was named Aloros, and according to the 4th century Babylonian scribe Berossus he did not name him king of Eridu, but the king of Babylon.

Other Babylon Sources

A topographical list dating to Nebuchadrezzar I 261125-1103 BC names Babylons religious quarter as Eridu. Other texts of the second millennium BC record Eridu as being described when Babylon should be the reference, and during the Neo-Babylonian empire. The king of Babylon would often call himself LUGAL NUN.ki, Babylonian for KING of ERIDU.

So hopefully we can agree that Eridu is the city mentioned in Genesis as Babel. Just north of Babel/Eridu is not only Tell-al-Ubaid where the expansion is believed to have begun and is where the Ubaid period takes its name from. Close to Eridu is the city of Ur where Abraham is said to be living when God tells him to move.

And on a side note, Eridu was once on the bank of the Persian Gulf, the gulf has received over the millennia (from 5000 BC) to where it is now.

The Uruk Expansion

During the Uruk expansion, we see Sumerian artifacts reaching central Anatolia, and even down into the Levant and east to the Zagros mountains. Evidence shows these were not always peaceful expansions. While in some arias they made cities next to the indigenous peoples, living segregated from them and engaging in commerce with them, but in others we see the evidence of them moving in and destroying cities and building on top of them.

Another thing they brought with them was their building styles, three-section houses, and buildings like their temples, much like the Israelite four-section houses.

The Arrival Of The Ubaid Peoples

1 Now the whole earth had one language and the same words. 2 And as people migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. 3 And they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly.” And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. 4 Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth.”

Genesis 11: 1-4

Biblical directions are sometimes difficult to understand, while the could say from the north and east, sometimes they just give the primary direction. Though they did come initially from the east, they turned southward after that toward southern Mesopotamia, there the built a civilization that would change history.

The Tower Of Babel

On that plain when they began to build that first temple complex in Eridu they set in motion cultural and religious practices that they would spread throughout the near east and eventually become Christianity to some degree. The people they mingled with became the Akkadian, Assyrians, Babylonians, Canaanites, and Hebrews. It evolved into a monotheistic religion while keeping many of the different god names and stories into what it is today. This is why the Assyrians, Babylonians, and others told the story of Sumer because it was Sumer who brought them the story of the gods, who later would be only one God.

Ancient Aliens?

So we don’t need ancient aliens from other planets. The Ancients wrote about Anu-na-“the offspring/children of Anu/Heaven/King or “sons of God” and “Anu-na-ki” The children of Heaven and Earth, which I interpret Genesis 6 as saying, “the sons of God and the daughters of man”.

The “Nephelim” are the children of heaven and earth or of An and Ki. The whole story of Sumer is in our bibles, without them we would not know the God we know today, and even the Greeks owe a debt to Sumer. SO yes History began at Sumer, but maybe, also Gobekli Tepe

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  • 1
    Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, and Proto-Canaanite (when found in Canaan), is a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, considered the earliest trace of alphabetic writing, and the common ancestor of the Ancient South Arabian script and Phoenician alphabet (and by extension, every other subsequent alphabet).
  • 2
    The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East, it marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. The Ancient Near Eastern cultures are well within the historical era: The first half of the millennium is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. At the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Minoan Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium sees the Bronze Age collapse and the transition to the Iron Age.
  • 3
  • 4
    Cohen 2011, pp. 228–229
  • 5
    Rasmussen, S. O.; Andersen, K. K.; Svensson, A. M.; Steffensen, J. P.; Vinther, B. M.; Clausen, H. B.; Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L.; Johnsen, S. J.; Larsen, L. B.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Bigler, M. (2006). “A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination” (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research111 (D6): D06102. Bibcode:2006JGRD..111.6102Rdoi:10.1029/2005JD006079. ISSN 0148-0227
  • 6
    The name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumeriankig̃ir, written ??? ki-en-gi and ??? ki-en-ĝir15, approximately “land of the civilized kings” or “native land”. ĝir15 means “native, local”, in(ĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian) from The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary). Literally, “land of the native (local, noble) lords”. Stiebing (1994) has “Land of the Lords of Brightness” (William Stiebing, Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture). Postgate (1994) takes en as substituting eme “language”, translating “land of the Sumerian heart” (John Nicholas Postgate (1994). Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge (UK).. Postgate believes it not that eme, ‘tongue’, became en, ‘lord’, through consonantal assimilation.)
  • 7
  • 8
    Thorkild Jacobsen (1994). Hess, Richard S.; Tsumuro, David Toshio (eds.). I Studied Inscriptions from Before the Flood: Ancient Near Eastern Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis. Eisenbraun’s. p. 129. ISBN 978-0931464881. Retrieved 30 July 2015
  • 9
    Ewa Wasilewska (2000). Creation stories of the Middle East. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-1-85302-681-2. Retrieved 23 May 2011
  • 10
  • 11
    The Abzu or Apsu (Cuneiform: ? ?, ZU.AB; Sumerian: abzu; Akkadian: apsû, also called engur (Cuneiform:?, LAGAB×HAL; Sumerian: engur; Akkadian: engurru—lit. ab=’water’ zu=’deep’)
  • 12
    in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology is referred to the primeval sea below the void space of the underworld (Kur) and the earth (Ma) above. In the city of Eridu, Enki’s temple was known as E2-abzu (house of the deep waters). It was located at the edge of a swamp an abzu. Certain tanks of holy water in Babylonian and Assyrian. Temple courtyards were also called abzu (apsû). Typical in religious washing, these tanks were similar to Judaism’s mikvot, the washing pools of Islamic mosques. Also, like the baptismal font in Christian churches.
  • 13
    Anzû, also known as dZû and Imdugud (Sumerian: ??? AN.IM.DUGUDMUŠEN), is a lesser divinity or monster in several Mesopotamian religions. He was conceived by the pure waters of the Apsu and the wide Earth, or as son of Siris. Anzû was depicted as a massive bird who can breathe fire and water, although Anzû is alternately depicted as a lion-headed eagle.
  • 14
    Archibald Sayce (1882) considered that Hebrew lilit (or lilith) לילית and the earlier Akkadian līlītu are from proto-Semitic. Charles Fossey (1902) has this literally translating to “female night being/demon”, although cuneiform inscriptions from Mesopotamia exist where Līlīt and Līlītu refer to disease-bearing wind spirits
  • 15
    c. 8th – 7th century BC
  • 16
    Hesiod,Theogony 820–822. Apollodorus, 1.6.3, and Hyginus, Fabulae Preface also have Typhon as the offspring of Gaia and Tartarus. However Hyginus, Fabulae 152 has Typhon as the offspring of Tartarus and Tartara, where, according to Fontenrose, p. 77, Tartara was “no doubt [Gaia] herself under a name which designates all that lies beneath the earth.”
  • 17
    1st or 2nd century AD
  • 18
    a late-third-millennium BC Sumerian poem
  • 19
    The early second millennium BC
  • 20
    Ugaritic tablets, dated to the fourteenth or thirteenth-century BC,
  • 21
    the Canaanite name for later Greeks’ Mount Kasios
  • 22
    c. 1250 BC
  • 23
    (/ˈʃɪnɑːr/; Hebrew שִׁנְעָר Šinʻar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar)
  • 24
    c. 3500 and c. 3000 BC.
  • 25
    Roaf, Mesopotamia and the ANE (Ancient Near East), 58
  • 26
    1125-1103 BC

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